Computer-Aided Clinical Skin Disease Diagnosis Using CNN and Object Detection Models. (arXiv:1911.08705v1 [eess.IV])

Skin disease is one of the most common types of human diseases, which may happen to everyone regardless of age, gender or race. Due to the high visual diversity, human diagnosis highly relies on personal experience; and there is a serious shortage of experienced dermatologists in many countries. To alleviate this problem, computer-aided diagnosis with…

Neocortical plasticity: an unsupervised cake but no free lunch. (arXiv:1911.08584v1 [q-bio.NC])

The fields of artificial intelligence and neuroscience have a long history of fertile bi-directional interactions. On the one hand, important inspiration for the development of artificial intelligence systems has come from the study of natural systems of intelligence, the mammalian neocortex in particular. On the other, important inspiration for models and theories of the brain…

Ghost Units Yield Biologically Plausible Backprop in Deep Neural Networks. (arXiv:1911.08585v1 [q-bio.NC])

In the past few years, deep learning has transformed artificial intelligence research and led to impressive performance in various difficult tasks. However, it is still unclear how the brain can perform credit assignment across many areas as efficiently as backpropagation does in deep neural networks. In this paper, we introduce a model that relies on…

Machine Learning Classification Informed by a Functional Biophysical System. (arXiv:1911.08589v1 [physics.bio-ph])

We present a novel machine learning architecture for classification suggested by experiments on the insect olfactory system. The network separates odors via a winnerless competition network, then classifies objects by projection into a high dimensional space where a support vector machine provides more precision in classification. We build this network using biophysical models of neurons…

Folding Rate Optimization Promotes Frustrated Interactions in Entangled Protein Structures. (arXiv:1911.08590v1 [cond-mat.soft])

Many native structures of proteins accomodate complex topological motifs such as knots, lassos, and other geometrical entanglements. How proteins can fold quickly even in the presence of such topological obstacles is a debated question in structural biology. Recently, the hypothesis that energetic frustration might be a mechanism to avoid topological frustration has been put forward…

Steepest ascent can be exponential in bounded treewidth problems. (arXiv:1911.08600v1 [cs.DM])

We investigate the complexity of local search based on steepest ascent. We show that even when all variables have domains of size two and the underlying constraint graph (graph of variable interactions) has bounded treewidth (in our construction, treewidth is 7), there are fitness landscapes for which an exponential number of steps may be required…

Improvements of the REDCRAFT Software Package. (arXiv:1911.08612v1 [q-bio.BM])

Traditional approaches to elucidation of protein structures by NMR spectroscopy rely on distance restraints also known as nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs). The use of NOEs as the primary source of structure determination by NMR spectroscopy is time consuming and expensive. Residual Dipolar Couplings (RDCs) have become an alternate approach for structure calculation by NMR spectroscopy.…

Aging Memories Generate More Fluent Dialogue Responses with Memory Networks. (arXiv:1911.08522v1 [cs.AI])

The integration of a Knowledge Base (KB) into a neural dialogue agent is one of the key challenges in Conversational AI. Memory networks has proven to be effective to encode KB information into an external memory to thus generate more fluent and informed responses. Unfortunately, such memory becomes full of latent representations during training, so…

Euclidean Bottleneck Bounded-Degree Spanning Tree Ratios. (arXiv:1911.08529v1 [cs.CG])

Inspired by the seminal works of Khuller et al. (STOC 1994) and Chan (SoCG 2003) we study the bottleneck version of the Euclidean bounded-degree spanning tree problem. A bottleneck spanning tree is a spanning tree whose largest edge-length is minimum, and a bottleneck degree-$K$ spanning tree is a degree-$K$ spanning tree whose largest edge-length is…