Dynamic Modeling and Equilibria in Fair Decision Making. (arXiv:1911.06837v1 [cs.LG])

Recent studies on fairness in automated decision making systems have both investigated the potential future impact of these decisions on the population at large, and emphasized that imposing ”typical” fairness constraints such as demographic parity or equality of opportunity does not guarantee a benefit to disadvantaged groups. However, these previous studies have focused on either…

Review and new concepts for neutron-capture measurements of astrophysical interest. (arXiv:1911.06972v1 [physics.ins-det])

The idea of slow-neutron capture nucleosynthesis formulated in 1957 triggered a tremendous experimental effort in different laboratories worldwide to measure the relevant nuclear physics input quantities, namely ($n,\gamma$) cross sections over the stellar temperature range (from few eV up to several hundred keV) for most of the isotopes involved from Fe up to Bi. A…

The Directed Dominating Set problem studied by cavity method: Warning propagation and population dynamics. (arXiv:1911.06974v1 [physics.soc-ph])

The minimal dominating set for a digraph(directed graph)is a prototypical hard combinatorial optimization problem. In a previous paper, we studied this problem using the cavity method. Although we found a solution for a given graph that gives very good estimate of the minimal dominating size, we further developed the one step replica symmetry breaking theory…

Bonding in light-induced vortices: benzene in a high-frequency circular polarized laser. (arXiv:1911.06976v1 [physics.chem-ph])

The electronic structure of benzene in the presence of a high-intensity high-frequency circularly polarized laser supports a middle-of-the-ring electron localization. Here, the laser polarization coincides with the ring plane of benzene. The high-frequency oscillating electric field creates circular currents centered at each atom with a circle radius equal to the maximum field amplitude of the…

Post- versus pre-resonance characteristics of axially excited chiral sculptured thin films. (arXiv:1911.06984v1 [physics.optics])

Axially excited chiral sculptured thin films (STFs) are shown to exhibit the circular Bragg phenomenon in the pre-resonant (long-wavelength) regime but not in some parts of the post-resonant (short-wavelength) regime. Chiral STFs act as very good polarization-independent reflectors in the vicinity of material resonances in the latter regime.

The Second Laws for Quantum and Nano-scale Heat Engines. (arXiv:1911.07003v1 [quant-ph])

The second law in thermodynamics dictates which state transformations are statistically unlikely or effectively forbidden. However, the statistical formulation of the second law assumes the asymptotic regime, where a system of an asymptotically large number of particles interacts with the thermal baths. In addition, standard thermodynamics relies on mean values of thermodynamic quantities and admits…

Optimal perturbations and transition energy thresholds in boundary layer shear flows. (arXiv:1911.07019v1 [physics.flu-dyn])

Subcritical transition to turbulence in spatially developing boundary layer flows can be triggered efficiently by finite amplitude perturbations. In this work, we employ adjoint-based optimization to identify optimal initial perturbations in the Blasius boundary layer, culminating in the computation of the critical energy threshold for subcritical transition and the associated fully localized critical optimum in…

Full distribution of first exit times in the narrow escape problem. (arXiv:1911.07637v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])

In the scenario of the narrow escape problem (NEP) a particle diffuses in a finite container and eventually leaves it through a small “escape window” in the otherwise impermeable boundary, once it arrives to this window and over-passes an entropic barrier at the entrance to it. This generic problem is mathematically identical to that of…