### Separate and Attend in Personal Email Search. (arXiv:1911.09732v1 [cs.IR])

In personal email search, user queries often impose different requirements on different aspects of the retrieved emails. For example, the query “my recent flight to the US” requires emails to be ranked based on both textual contents and recency of the email documents, while other queries such as “medical history” do not impose any constraints…

### Global Health Monitor: A Web-based System for Detecting and Mapping Infectious Diseases. (arXiv:1911.09735v1 [cs.AI])

We present the Global Health Monitor, an online Web-based system for detecting and mapping infectious disease outbreaks that appear in news stories. The system analyzes English news stories from news feed providers, classifies them for topical relevance and plots them onto a Google map using geo-coding information, helping public health workers to monitor the spread…

### Filter Response Normalization Layer: Eliminating Batch Dependence in the Training of Deep Neural Networks. (arXiv:1911.09737v1 [cs.LG])

Batch Normalization (BN) is a highly successful and widely used batch dependent training method. Its use of mini-batch statistics to normalize the activations introduces dependence between samples, which can hurt the training if the mini-batch size is too small, or if the samples are correlated. Several alternatives, such as Batch Renormalization and Group Normalization (GN),…

### Rethinking Normalization and Elimination Singularity in Neural Networks. (arXiv:1911.09738v1 [cs.CV])

In this paper, we study normalization methods for neural networks from the perspective of elimination singularity. Elimination singularities correspond to the points on the training trajectory where neurons become consistently deactivated. They cause degenerate manifolds in the loss landscape which will slow down training and harm model performances. We show that channel-based normalizations (e.g. Layer…

### Decentralized Consensus Optimization Based on Parallel Random Walk. (arXiv:1911.09747v1 [cs.DC])

The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) has recently been recognized as a promising approach for large-scale machine learning models. However, very few results study ADMM from the aspect of communication costs, especially jointly with running time. In this letter, we investigate the communication efficiency and running time of ADMM in solving the consensus optimization…

### Polarization Transfer from the Twisted Light to an Atom. (arXiv:1911.09741v1 [quant-ph])

When polarized light is absorbed by an atom, the excited atomic system carries information about the initial polarization of light. For the light that carries an orbital angular momentum, or the twisted light, the polarization states are described by eight independent parameters, as opposed to three Stokes parameters for plane waves. We use a parameterization…

### The nature of the quadruple chemical bond in the dicarbon molecule. (arXiv:1911.09748v1 [physics.chem-ph])

The molecular dissociation energy has often been explained and discussed in terms of singlet bonds, formed by a number of bounded pairs of valence electrons. In this work we use a highly correlated resonating valence bond ansatz, providing a consistent paradigm for the chemical bond, where spin fluctuations are shown to play a crucial role.…

### Energy cascade rate measured in a collisionless space plasma with MMS data and compressible Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence theory. (arXiv:1911.09749v1 [physics.plasm-ph])

The first complete estimation of the compressible energy cascade rate $|\varepsilon_\text{C}|$ at magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and sub-ion scales is obtained in the Earth’s magnetosheath using Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) spacecraft data and an exact law derived recently for {\it compressible} Hall MHD turbulence. A multi-spacecraft technique is used to compute the velocity and magnetic gradients, and then…

### L\’evy flights for light in ordered lasers. (arXiv:1911.09752v1 [physics.optics])

L\’evy flights for light have been demonstrated in disordered systems with and without optical gain, and remained unobserved in ordered ones. In the present letter, we investigate, numerically and experimentally, L\’evy flights for light in ordered systems due to an ordered (conventional) laser. The statistical analysis was performed on the intensity fluctuations of the output…

### Is density functional theory accurate for lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase enzymes?. (arXiv:1911.09780v1 [physics.chem-ph])

The lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) enzymes boost polysaccharide depolymerization through oxidative chemistry, which has fueled the hope for more energy-efficient production of biofuel. We have recently proposed a mechanism for the oxidation of the polysaccharide substrate (Hedeg{\aa}rd & Ryde, Chem. Sci. 2018, 9, 3866). In this mechanism, complexes with superoxide, oxyl, as well as hydroxyl…